Early stage of diabetic
retinopathy; usually does not impair vision. Also called
Administration (Poor Man's Pump)
Using several daily injections of clear insulin (either Regular or
Lispro), at mealtimes -- the bolus doses --
together with one or more daily injections of cloudy insulin (either NPH or
Ultralente insulin) -- the basal
doses -- to achieve blood sugar control in a manner similar to that used by
people who use insulin
Refers to a continuous supply of low levels of insulin, as in insulin pump therapy.
A type of cell in the pancreas in
areas called the Islets
of Langerhans. Beta cells make and release insulin, a
hormone that controls the level of glucose
(sugar) in the blood.
See also: alpha cell
Beta Cell Transplantation
Biosynthetic Human Insulin
A man-made insulin that is very much like human
A type of insulin that is a mixture of intermediate- and fast-acting
The main sugar that the body makes from the three elements of
food-proteins, fats, and carbohydrates-but mostly from carbohydrates.
Glucose is the major source of energy for living cells and is carried to
each cell through the bloodstream. However, the cells cannot use glucose
without the help of insulin.
Blood Glucose Meter/Blood Glucose
A way of testing how much glucose
(sugar) is in the blood. A drop of blood, usually taken from the fingertip,
is placed on the end of a specially coated strip, called a testing strip.
The strip has a chemical on it that makes it change color according to how
much glucose is in the blood. A person can tell if the level of glucose is
low, high, or normal in one of two ways. The first is by comparing the color
on the end of the strip to a color chart that is printed on the side of the
test strip container. The second is by inserting the strip into a small
machine, called a meter, which "reads" the strip and shows the level of
blood glucose in a digital window display. Some meters have a memory that
can store results from multiple tests.
Blood testing is more accurate than urine testing in monitoring blood
glucose levels because it shows what the current level of glucose is, rather
than what the level was an hour or so previously.
Meters for a discussion and review of several meters currently
The force of the blood on the walls of arteries. Two levels of blood
pressure are measured-the higher, or systolic, pressure, which occurs each
time the heart pushes blood into the vessels, and the lower, or diastolic,
pressure, which occurs when the heart rests. In a blood pressure reading of
120/80, for example, 120 is the systolic pressure and 80 is the diastolic
pressure. A reading of 120/80 is said to be the normal range. Blood pressure
that is too high can cause health problems such as heart attacks and strokes.
A small instrument for pricking the skin with a fine needle to obtain a
sample of blood to test for glucose (sugar).
See also: Blood
Lancing Devices for a discussion and review of several blood-sampling
devices currently available.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
A waste product of the kidneys.
Increased levels of BUN in the blood may indicate early kidney
Tubes that act like a system of roads or canals to carry blood to and
from all parts of the body. The three main types of blood vessels are
arteries, veins, and capillaries. The heart pumps blood through these
vessels so that the blood can carry with it oxygen and nutrients that the
cells need or take away waste that the cells do not need.
An extra boost of insulin given
to cover expected rise in blood
glucose (sugar) such as the rise that occurs after eating.
A term no longer used. See: Impaired
Diabetes that is very difficult to control. It is an antiquated term
that has no place in current management of diabetes. In particular it is not
a distinct form of diabetes, and usually will respond to a more intensive
team approach to care.
A bump or bulge on the first joint of the big toe caused by the swelling
of a sac of fluid under the skin. Shoes that fit well can keep bunions from
forming. Bunions can lead to other problems such as serious infections.
See also: Foot care.