C.D.E. (Certified Diabetes Educator)
A health professional who is certified by the National Certification
Board for Diabetes Educators to teach people with diabetes how to manage
their condition. The criteria to obtain this certification include:
- a degree in the health professions such as R.N. (nursing), M.D. or
D.O. (physicians), R.D. (dietitians), R.Ph. or Pharm.D. (pharmacists),
M.S.W. (social workers), and others.
- at least two years' experience in diabetes education.
- successful completion of a comprehensive examination covering the
Certified Diabetes Educators must be recredentialed every 5 years.
Visit the American Association of
Diabetes Educators website to learn more about diabetes education. You
may also visit the National
Certification Board for Diabetes Educators website to learn more about
the Certification process.
A substance that the pancreas releases into the bloodstream in equal
amounts to insulin. A test of C-peptide levels will show how much insulin
the body is making.
Calcium Channel Blocker
A drug used to lower blood pressure.
A small area of skin, usually on the foot, that has become thick and
hard from rubbing or pressure. Calluses may lead to other problems such as
serious infection. Shoes that fit well can keep calluses from forming.
See also: Foot care.
Energy that comes from food. Some foods have more calories than others.
many calories. Most vegetables have few. People with diabetes are advised to
follow meal plans with suggested amounts of calories for each meal and/or
See also: Meal plan;
The smallest of the body's blood vessels. Capillaries have walls so thin
that oxygen and glucose can pass through them and enter the cells, and waste
products such as carbon dioxide can pass back into the blood to be carried
away and taken out of the body. Sometimes people who have had diabetes for a
long time find that their capillaries become weak, especially those in the
kidney and the retina of the eye.
See also: Blood
Capsaicin, derived from hot peppers, is the active ingredient in the
creams used to relieve the pain of peripheral neuropathy.
One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy.
Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into
simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells). The body also uses
carbohydrates to make a substance called glycogen
that is stored in the liver and muscles for future use. If the body does not
have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it has, which are the basic
problems in most forms of diabetes, then the body will not be able to use
carbohydrates for energy the way it should.
Sometimes abbreviated CHO.
See also: Fats; protein.
A doctor who sees and takes care of people with heart disease; a heart
Relating to the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, and
capillaries); the circulatory system.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
A nerve disorder affecting the hand that may occur in people with
diabetes; caused by a pinched nerve.
Clouding of the lens of the eye. In people with diabetes, this condition
is sometimes referred to as "sugar cataract."
A hollow flexible tube used to infuse or drain fluids into or from the
body. Example: A catheter is used to transfer insulin from an insulin
pump to a needle that is placed in the skin of the person using an insulin
Celiac syndrome (also spelled
disorder of the upper intestinal mucosa that is triggered by cereal
proteins, especially wheat gluten, and which leads to a malabsorption of all
nutrients, primarily of fat. It can be detected by the presence of
anti-transglutaminase antibodies. If these are positive it would be
justifiable to take a mucosal biopsy and if this is positive, then dietary
treatment is all that is required.
About 5% of people with autoimmune diabetes
have positive anti-transglutaminase antibodies. Celiac syndrome may also be
part of the Autoimmune
Damage to the blood vessels in the brain, resulting in a stroke. The
blood vessels become blocked because of fat deposits or they become thick
and hard, blocking the flow of blood to the brain. Sometimes, the blood
vessels may burst, resulting in a hemorrhagic stroke. People with diabetes
are at higher risk of cerebrovascular disease.
See also: Macrovascular
A foot complication associated with diabetic
neuropathy that results in almost painless destruction of joints and
soft tissue. Also called "Charcot's joint" and "neuropathic arthropathy."
A term no longer used. See: Impaired
A pill taken to lower the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Only
some people with noninsulin-dependent diabetes take these pills.
See also: Oral
A fat-like substance found in blood, muscle, liver, brain, and other
tissues in people and animals. The body makes and needs some cholesterol.
Too much cholesterol, however, may cause fat to build up in the walls of the
larger arteries and cause a disease called atherosclerosis.
Butter and egg yolks are examples of foods that have a lot of cholesterol.
Cholesterol is composed of several components:
- HDL-Cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol): This component of cholesterol seems to have protective
effects, and higher levels are considered to be good to have.
- LDL-Cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein
- VLDL-Cholesterol (very low-density
Cholesterol is a lipid.
Present over a long period of time. Diabetes is an example of chronic
The flow of blood through the heart and blood vessels of the body.
A scientifically controlled study carried out in people, usually to test
the effectiveness of a new treatment.
A sleep-like state; not conscious. May be due to a high or low level of
glucose (sugar) in the blood.
In a coma; not conscious.
Complications of Diabetes
See also: Diabetic
Harmful effects that may happen when a person has diabetes. Some
effects, such as hypoglycemia, can happen any time. Others develop when a
person has had diabetes for a long time. These include damage to the retina
of the eye (retinopathy),
the blood vessels (angiopathy),
the nervous system (neuropathy),
and the kidneys (nephropathy).
Studies show that keeping blood glucose levels as close to the normal,
nondiabetic range as possible may help prevent, slow, or delay harmful
effects to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
For information about how important good control is in reducing the risk
of complications, see The
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT).
Problems or conditions that are present at birth.
Congestive Heart Failure
Heart failure caused by loss of pumping power by the heart, resulting in
fluids collecting in the body. Congestive heart failure often develops
gradually over several years, although it also can happen suddenly. It can
be treated by drugs and in some cases, by surgery.
A condition that makes a treatment not helpful or even harmful.
Taking care of oneself so that a disease has less of an effect on the
body. People with diabetes can "control" the disease by staying on their
diets, by exercising, by taking medicine if it is needed, and by monitoring
their blood glucose. This care will help keep the glucose (sugar) level in
the blood from becoming either too high or too low.
A system of diabetes management practiced by most people with diabetes;
the system consists of one or two insulin injections each day, daily
self-monitoring of blood glucose, and a standard program of nutrition and
exercise. The main objective in this form of treatment is to avoid very high
and very low blood glucose (sugar). Also called: "Standard Therapy."
The Diabetes Control
and Complications Trial has shown that intensive
therapy, rather than conventional therapy, can reduce the risk of
Damage to the heart. Not enough blood flows through the vessels because
they are blocked with fat or have become thick and hard; this harms the
muscles of the heart. People with diabetes are at a higher risk of coronary
One of several hormones made
in the adrenal
glands. The primary responsibility of cortisol is to activate the immune
system; it also is involved with the metabolism of glucose, and can cause
elevation of the blood sugar level.
Coxsackie B4 Virus
Cortisol is in the class of hormones called corticosteroids (or
steroids). It, and synthetic versions such as prednisone, are
available as prescription medications for treating severe illnesses
including asthma and arthritis; they are sometimes also used for severe
cases of minor illnesses like poison ivy rashes.
See also Your
doctor advises using steroids at the Diabetes Monitor.
An agent that has been shown to damage the beta cells of the pancreas in
lab tests. This virus may be one cause of insulin-dependent diabetes.
Be sure to read Common Class of Viruses
Implicated as Cause of Type 1 Diabetes.
An end-product of protein metabolism found in the blood and urine, that
can be used to help assess if the kidneys are working adequately. A related
test, using simultaneous measurements of a timed urine sample plus a blood
creatinine test, is called the creatinine clearance.
CSII: Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion
A man-made chemical that people used instead of sugar. The Food and Drug
Administration banned the sale of cyclamates in 1973 because lab tests
showed that large amounts of cyclamates can cause bladder cancer in rats.