Ketones (Ketone Bodies)
Chemicals that the body makes when there is not enough insulin in the
blood and it must break down fat for its
energy. Ketone bodies can poison and even kill body cells. When the body
does not have the help of insulin, the ketones build up in the blood and
then "spill" over into the urine so that the body can get rid of them. The
body can also rid itself of one type of ketone, called acetone,
through the lungs. This gives the breath a fruity odor. Ketones that build
up in the body for a long time lead to serious illness and coma.
See also: Diabetic
Having ketone bodies in the urine; a warning sign of diabetic
A condition of having ketone bodies build up in body tissues and fluids.
The signs of ketosis are nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Ketosis can
lead to ketoacidosis.
A poorly-understood disorder of childhood, marked by hypoglycemia and ketosis
There is carbohydrate deprivation, with consequent dependence on fat stores
for energy. Ketotic hypoglycemia can often be effectively treated by simple
dietary changes involving frequent feedings of carbohydrate and protein.
Any one of several chronic conditions that are caused by damage to the
cells of the kidney. People who have had diabetes for a long time may have
kidney damage. Also called nephropathy.
Two organs in the lower back that clean waste and poisons from the
blood. The kidneys are shaped like two large beans, and they act as the
body's filter. They also control the level of some chemicals in the blood
such as hydrogen, sodium, potassium, and phosphate.
The point at which the blood is holding too much of a substance such as
glucose (sugar) and the kidneys "spill" the excess sugar into the urine.
See also: Renal
The rapid, deep, and labored breathing of people who have ketoacidosis
or who are in a diabetic coma. Kussmaul breathing is named for Adolph
Kussmaul, the 19th century German doctor who first noted it. Also called